Crystal Springs Pet Hospital

122 De Anza Boulevard
San Mateo, CA 94402


Pet disease risks:

Leptospirosis:  There is currently an outbreak of Leptospirosis causing death in sea lions on the pacific coast.  This disease is contagious to both people and dogs.  Please keep your dog on leash and stay 50 feet from any dead or dying sea lions.  Leptospirosis causes kidney failure in dogs. Your dog may appear very sick with symptoms that include vomiting and diarrhea.  We do carry a vaccination if you frequently walk your dog at the beach.

Heartworms: Dogs need to be on heartworm prevention if they travel to heartworm areas or if they defecate (roundworms) in an area where children play  (zoonotic risk).  The heartworm-carrying mosquito is prevalent in the Sierra Foothills and the Santa Cruz Mountains including Woodside and Portola Valley.  When you travel to different areas, call the local veterinarian of that area and ask them if they have heartworms in their area.

Rattlesnakes: Rattlesnakes can be found in many parts the Bay Area. If you frequent an area where rattlesnakes are found we do carry a vaccine that will lessen the effect of a bite.
If your dog has been bitten by a rattlesnake you must take your dog to an emergency clinic IMMEDIATELY (whether vaccinated or not)
       Northern Peninsula Veterinary Emergency Clinic  at 227North Amphlett Blvd in San Mateo is one of only a few emergency clinics that carries rattlesnake antivenom. They can be  
       contacted at (650)- 348-2575 for directions see our Emergencies after hours page. 

Canine influenza Please read the following articles from regarding the recent outbreak of canine influenza in Chicago.

                             NOTE:  We do NOT believe that Canine Influenza is prevalent in our area. 

Canine Influenza (H3N8)

The Pet Health Care Library

The spring 2015 Chicago-based outbreak of canine influenza is a strain called H3N2, whereas this article is about a milder strain called H3N8. The vaccinefor H3N8 is not thought to be effective against H3N2, which can cause amore severe case of influenza.

Influenza viruses of asssorted varieties have been the subject ofconcern for humans, wildlife, and domestic animals for many decades.Dogs were largely felt to be exempt from the flu until 2004 when a newcanine influenza virus, clearly stemming from the equine influenzavirus, was isolated from several groups of Florida racing greyhounds.The problem seemed confined to the racing industry until 2005 when cases began appearing in boarding facilities involving pet dogs.

In the last weeks of September 2005 and continuing into October,numerous warnings to dog owners about a new lethal canine disease sweptthe Internet. Some of these warnings contained legitimate informationwhile others contained half-truths or information that is simply wrong.We would like to take this time to sort out the facts from the theoriesfrom the misinformation. Here is what we hope is a helpful FAQ regarding this relatively new virus that has come to be considered part of thekennel cough (recently renamed CIRD for canine infectious respiratorydisease) complex.

What is Canine Influenza?

Let's start with what an influenza virus is. Influenza viruses represent a specific type of virus. There are actually three types (genera) ofinfluenza viruses: type A (including the canine influenza virus), typeB, and the less closely related Type C. They produce fever, joint pain,and respiratory signs with which we are all familiar. Death is unusualbut stems from respiratory complications and is most common in the veryold and very young. Most human flu viruses are type B or C.

The influenza virus has on its surface an assortment of proteins that determine its strain, or subtype, and it is against these surfaceproteins that our bodies mount an immune response. Of particular noteare the hemaglutinin proteins and neuramindase proteins for whichspecific strains of influenza viruses are named. In 2009, there was ahuman epidemic of H1N1 virus. The canine influenza virus is H3N8. Ashuman influenzas emerge, these terms may be in the news and it is ofinterest to know what they refer to. If a viral strain mutates andsufficiently changes its surface proteins, a new strain is created. Anew strain is one where the susceptible population has no immunity andinfection can spread rapidly.

Molecular studies indicate that canine influenza represents amutation from the equine influenza virus. Canine influenza was firstconfirmed in a racing greyhound in 2004 and was largely a concern of the racing greyhound industry, particularly in Florida.

Starting in April 2005, the canine influenza virus has been seen inthe pet populations of many states outside of Florida, hence the recentbarrage of email, news reports etc.

What Happens to the Sick Dogs?

Infection rate is high but (depending on which report one reads)20-50% will simply make antibodies and clear the infection without anysigns of illness at all.

The other 50-80% will get symptoms of the flu: they will have fevers, listlessness, coughing, and a snotty nose. Most dogs will recover withsupportive treatment (antibiotics, perhaps nebulization/humidification,etc.). A small percentage of dogs will get pneumonia. These dogs are the ones at risk for death, and support becomes more aggressive:hospitalization, intravenous fluid therapy etc. Most of these dogs willrecover as well, as long as they receive proper care. Mortality rate is5-8%.

The incubation period is 2-5 days and the course of infection lasts2-4 weeks. Because this is an emerging disease, few dogs will haveimmunity to it unless they have received one of the new vaccines. Thismeans that any dog unvaccinated for influenza is a candidate forinfection.

  • The point is not to ignore a coughing dog.
  • Do not allow your dog to socialize with coughing dogs. If your dog develops a cough, see your veterinarian.
  • If your dog develops a snotty nose, listlessness, and cough, do notbe surprised if your veterinarian wants to look at chest radiographs and considers hospitalization.

How is the Disease Transmitted?

Dogs that are infected will shed virus in body secretions whether ornot they appear to be sick. Virus transmission can occur from directcontact with an infected dog or with its secretions. Kennel workers have been known to bring the virus home accidentally to their own pets. Thevirus persists on toys, bowls, collars, leashes etc. for several days.Infected animals should be considered contagious for 14 days.

How are Sick Dogs Treated?

High fevers are treated with anti-pyretic medications or cool waterbaths, but generally antibiotics to control secondary infections are all that is needed. Pneumonia results from secondary bacterial infections(i.e. bacteria invading the lung after the virus has damaged the tissueand compromised its ability to defend itself). Pneumonia in the dog isvirtually always secondary in this way (meaning that an initialcondition damages the lung allowing bacterial invaders to settle in) and treatment is similar regardless of the cause.

One treatment that might be different in this disease vs. otherpneumonias or respiratory disease is oseltamivir (Tamiflu®). This is anantiviral medication used in treating human influenza and is helpfulonly if used early in the course of infection or in prevention ofinfection in exposed dogs.

Can Dogs get Reinfected?

After a dog has recovered from canine influenza, immunity appears to last at least 2 years.

How are Dogs Tested for Canine Influenza?

In a perfect world there would be a simple test that could be performed on a single sample and yield unequivocal results.

There are two main ways to confirm canine influenza inion.

PCR Testing
PCR testing is a method of testing involvingamplifying small samples of DNA to make them more easily detectable. Anasal swab is used for the sample but timing is crucial; the sample must be obtained 3-4 days after the onset of symptoms. Because timing isdifficult, this method is not commonly recommended.
Here, a blood sample is tested for antibodies against canine influenza virusand the antibody level is compared to that from a second sample takenlater. The first sample is drawn within one week of the onset ofsymptoms and the second sample is drawn 2-3 weeks later. If the secondsample shows a four-fold increase in antibody level, this indicates atrue infection has occurred. This means, inconveniently, that diagnosiscannot be confirmed for several weeks after the dog has gotten sick. Asingle sample with antibodies present only indicates that the dog hasbeen exposed to influenza and does not clarify whether the infection iscurrent, recent or in the long past.

Negative test results are not felt to rule out a diagnosis of canine influenza infection.
Test kits are available to detect human flu virus in a matter of minutes atthe doctor's office. These kits will also work to detect canineinfluenza virus in a canine nasal swab. False negatives may be a problem but a positive result can be trusted. Some veterinary offices are using these kits for their coughing canine patients.

Does Vaccination against Kennel Cough (Bordetella) or Parainfluenza Offer any Protection against Canine Influenza?

No. These are all completely different infections; however, there are two canine influenza vaccines that have recently become available (onefrom Merck Animal Health and the other from Zoetis). Vaccination isrecommended for dogs that board frequently, attend group trainingclasses or events with other dogs, play regularly at the dog park ordoggie daycare, or who go to the groomer consistently. If you think your dog is at risk, talk to your veterinarian about vaccination.

Why don't Dogs Need a Different Flu Shot each year like People do?

One of the defining characteristics of the influenza viruses is their ability to mutate. Influenza viruses not only have a high capacity tomutate but different strains can combine into a completely new strainwithin an individual who is infected with two different strains at thesame time. Mutation can create enough genetic change within a strain tomake the vaccine less effective. This phenomenon is called antigenicdrift and, in people, would mean that last year's flu vaccine mightafford some protection the following year and it might not. If a wholenew strain is created, then the a whole new vaccine is needed and therewill be no protection from previous immunization. A great deal ofresearch goes into predicting the strain that will hit North America inevery fall.

The dog situation is a bit different. Canine influenza is not nearlyas common an infection in dogs as human influenza is among humans. Themore infected individuals there are, the more mutation is happening. The relatively low incidence of canine influenza means less mutation(antigenic drift), minimal potential for concurrent infection withmultiple strains (antigenic shift) and, best of all, the availablevaccines will not require modification for a long time.

Can People get Infected?

People cannot get infected by this virus. Influenza viruses arespecific for their host species and require a dramatic mutation in order to jump species. You should not be concerned about getting an influenza infection from a dog, horse, or any other species other than a fellowhuman being.

Merck Animal Health has information on the canine influenza vaccine, H3N8.


Canine Influenza H3N2

Dr. Mark Rishniw, ACVIM
VP Client Information Sheets

What is canine influenza?
Influenza in dogs is caused by canine influenza viruses (CIVs). The two main CIVs in circulation internationally are H3N8 and H3N2. Dogs are occasionally infected with human influenza viruses. These viruses are extremely contagious. 

When did the current U.S. outbreak of H3N2 start?
The outbreak began in the Chicago area in March, 2015.

Where have cases been reported?
Currently, the outbreak is mostly contained to the Chicago area. However, caseshave been identified in Wisconsin, Ohio and Indiana, according toinvestigators at University of Wisconsin.  Because of limitedsurveillance and reporting, the outbreak might be wider than reported.

What strain of influenza caused this outbreak?
The 2004 outbreak, which was caused by the H3N8 strain, has remainedcirculating in the U.S. dog population, causing sporadic disease sincethat time. However, the current outbreak has been identified as a H3N2strain of influenza A virus. This strain is closely related to an Asianstrain that is circulating in China and South Korea.

Will the commercially available canine influenza vaccines protect against the strain involved in the current outbreak?
Probably not. The current commercially available vaccines are not likelycross-protective against the H3N2 strain involved in the currentoutbreak.

For dog owners living in the affectedareas, the best prevention is to minimize contact with other dogs.Consider avoiding places such as dog parks, dog day care, groomingfacilities, boarding, training classes, and group gatherings. Walkingyour dog should be fine, but avoid socializing with other dogs.

If your dog in the affected areas has respiratory signs, such ascoughing, hacking, gagging or difficulty breathing, call yourveterinarian before your appointment to let them  know your dog hasrespiratory signs so that they can take appropriate precautions tominimize the possibility of contamining the facility. When you get tothe clinic, leave your dog in the car and have the veterinary team meetyou at the car so they can figure out how to best handle the dog.

What are signs of infection?
Clinical signs range from subclinical infection, or mild fever and malaise to severe,life-threatening pneumonia; however, most clinically affected dogs havesigns that are typical of kennel cough. Of approximately 1000 dogsrecognized to be infected in the Chicago area, about five have died from the infection. Clinically, influenza infection is not distinguishablefrom kennel cough caused by other pathogens, such as Bordetella bronchiseptica.

How is canine influenza diagnosed?
Tests thatbroadly detect influenza A virus (e.g., broadly targeted influenza Areal time RT-PCR) should effectively detect both H3N8 and H3N2. However, tests targeted directly at H3N8 are unlikely to identify H3N2 infection because of limited cross-reaction between H3N8 and H3N2 antibodies.

Can other animals or people become infected with this strain?
Currently, there is no evidence that people can contract this virus. However,studies in Asia have shown limited transmission to cats. Whether thiscan happen with the strain currently involved in the U.S. outbreak isunknown. In Asia, the H3N2 strain that infected cats (and causeddisease) was considered to be of avian origin. Current information about the U.S. H3N2 strain suggests that it might be of porcine origin.

How are the dogs treated?
The mild form requiresminimal supportive treatment, as is the case with ANY mildupper-respiratory infection (kennel cough). Cough suppresants may beprovided. Antibiotic therapy is restricted to high-risk patients. Withthe severe form, treatment is largely supportive. A rapid onset ofdisease (4-6 hours) is matched by an equally rapid improvement inclinical signs if treatment is instigated. Fluid support andbroad-spectrum antimicrobials that cover both gram-positive andgram-negative bacteria are generally required.

Copyright 2015 - 2015 by the Veterinary Information Network, Inc. All rights reserved.


Copyright 2014 - 2015 by the Veterinary Information Network, Inc. All rights reserved.